Get 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam PDF

By Roger Crowley

ISBN-10: 1401308503

ISBN-13: 9781401308506

A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the area we are living in today.

The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in background and the tip of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and finished account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in historical past that used to be a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.

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Additional resources for 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West

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The market was one of the main links between the city and its surrounding villages and bedouin tribes. Yet this was also a clearly structured and hierarchical institution, where villager, townsman and bedouin each had their place and function, where each recognized his role in an ancient order. 59 A leading social welfare role was fulfilled by the Khasikiyya waqf. This was in fact a complex of institutions large soup kitchens, stores, schools, hostels and mosques, dedicated in 1552 by Khaseki Hürrem Sultan, wife of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent.

If any sort of organization can be found in these cities, it is therefore bound to be along the lines of these networks. 25 In a later article Lapidus reaffirms his views on the Muslim city, and defines it as a geographic location of social groups whose members and activities were either greater or smaller in scope than the pale of the city itself. 26 In a recent article, Janet Abu­Lughod criticized this attitude. In books on the Islamic city, she writes, one can find chains of transmission, like the ancient isnads attesting to the authenticity of hadith statements.

Abu Lughod concludes that the debate should be focused not on the typical structure of "the Islamic city" but rather on the specific Islamic framework in which such cities were established and governed, and which contributed to their special character. Islamic cities vary a great deal, as regards their structure, and the relationship between various functions within them, but the shared historical and cultural heritage did create a measure of resemblance, which unites all Islamic urban settlements.

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1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West by Roger Crowley

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