By Sara Oldfield, Noel McGough
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Extra info for A CITES Manual for Botanic Gardens. Second edition.
We are here essentially interested in whether the institutional and policy environment is an ‘enabling’ one —whether it encourages (or constrains) individuals, enterprises and other organisations to adapt and innovate. The case for public investments in education, research and physical infrastructure has already been made, or is implicit in the foregoing. 13 As regards ‘enabling’ institutional innovations, North (1992:21) gives examples from the USA of the passing of legislation in the nineteenth century for the creation of land-grant colleges to promote the development and dissemination of agricultural knowledge, and for the establishment of agricultural experimental stations in every state.
V) Basic research, serving as a foundation for (iv). (Fransman, 1986:23–5) There is an element of arbitrariness in the dividing line we choose to draw, since we are actually dealing with a continuum. Category (i) is clearly responsive rather than innovatory. However, the rarity of pure imitation, without need for any modification, suggests that we should realistically also include (ii): adaptation to local conditions. Categories (iii) to (v), on the other hand, involve higher levels of creativity and are best thought of as innovatory, involving the recognition of new opportunities for profitable or socially useful changes.
Governments everywhere therefore include the gathering and dissemination of information as among their responsibilities. There is little controversy about this, but in many developing countries information flows often remain woefully inadequate. g. as they bear upon technological progress; and about how these and other variables interact with each other. In this way the transactions costs of adaptation will be reduced and the likelihood of change enhanced. 20 TONY KILLICK Market efficiency Since transactions costs would be zero in a perfectly functioning market economy and imperfect information raises transactions costs, it follows that good, low-cost information flows are a necessary condition for market efficiency.
A CITES Manual for Botanic Gardens. Second edition. by Sara Oldfield, Noel McGough