By José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina
Because the merely surviving pre-Indo-European language of western Europe, Basque has usually attracted the curiosity of linguists. while, frequently, descriptive paintings on Basque has basically serious about morphological positive aspects, together with its advanced approach of verb-argument contract and its strict ergative trend of inflection, over the past twenty years a brand new iteration of Basque linguists has produced very refined, theoretically-informed paintings on many elements of the syntax, morphology and phonology of the language, revealing, for example, a strategy of focalization with many attention-grabbing homes and the lifestyles in a few dialects of an accentual method strikingly just like that of normal jap. The publication, bringing jointly this accrued wisdom at the constitution of Basque, is significantly extra entire than the other current grammar of the language. one other attention-grabbing characteristic of this grammar is that the outline is illustrated with fully-glossed examples extracted from a large number of written resources. even though the focal point is the fashionable general language, dialectal positive aspects are thought of intimately and examples are taken from all dialects and classes.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Basque
Antz 'resemblance', pentsa 'to think', beltz 'black', eltze 'cooking pot', ertz 'border', hartz 'bear'. Dialects differ in the extent to which recent borrowings obey this restriction. g. mutil-zahar 'bachelor' (lit. 'old boy'). g. mendirantz 'towards the mountain' but mendiranzko 'of towards the mountain'; beltz 'black' but belztu 'become black, p r f ' . g. esne 'milk', ahizpa 'sister of a woman', gaixto 'bad, evil', ixtorio 'story, tale' (*etzne, etc). g. hotz 'cold', hoztu 'become cold, prf', hitz 'word' + tegi 'place' -> hiztegi 'dictionary', itx-i 'to close', ixten 'to close, impf' (cf.
G. g. xagu 'little mouse', DIM of sagu 'mouse'; xuxen 'correct, straight', DIM of zuzen) and in names such as Xabier, Xenpelar. In at least some Bizkaian areas, initial x- does not occur at all so that even a name like Xabier is pronounced with [§-]. g. χοή 'bird'). g. tximino 'monkey\xdhal 'calf). Table 6. g. azal 'skin', izan 'to be', atzo 'yesterday', etzi 'day after tomorrow', etzan 'to lay', esan 'to say', osaba 'uncle', atso 'old woman', etsi 'to give up', otso 'wolf. g. axuri 'lamb', axeri 'fox' (also azeri), baxu 'short' (< OSp baxo), etxe 'house' (also etse), itxaso 'sea' (also itsaso).
G. Lekeitio, Bermeo) we find a prepalatal  (which also has affricate realizations after pause or a noncontinuant consonant) and in some Navarrese areas (Roncal, Salazar) there was devoicing of this sound but no velarization and we find [J] (this sound is usually written with x, like other instances of the same sound: χan [jan] 'to eat'). g. Baztan) and Bizkaia (Arratia, Uribekosta) where a palatal consonant is found in the corresponding cognates. This palatal consonant may have the same range of realizations as Castilian Spanish y (from glide or very weak fricative to affricate or stop).
A Grammar of Basque by José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina