By Laura McPherson
Tommo So is a Dogon language with nearly 60,000 audio system in Mali, West Africa. As in simple terms the second one complete grammatical description of a Dogon language, this quantity is a severe source for fixing the secret of Dogon's genetic association with different languages in Africa. Tommo So is an SOV language with setting apart nominal morphology and agglutinative verbal morphology; suffixes at the verb mark tense/aspect/negation in addition to topic contract. The phonology is delicate to degrees of verbal morphology in that variable vowel concord applies much less often as one strikes to outer layers of the morphology. The tone process of Tommo So is of typological curiosity in either its phonological and syntactic instantiations. Phonologically, it's a two-tone method of H and L, yet those special tones distinction with a surface-underspecified tone. Grammatically, the lexical tone of a notice is frequently overwritten by way of syntactically-induced overlays. for instance, an inalienable noun's tone should be changed with L whether it is possessed by way of a non-pronominal possessor, and through both H or HL if the possessor is pronominal. The language has additionally innovated a sequence of locative quasi-verbs and concentration debris delicate to pragmatic elements like walk in the park.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Tommo So
Tommo So also has postpositions, which are grammatically enclitics: oblique =nɛ meaning ‘in’, ‘on’ and occasionally ‘for’; associative =le meaning ‘with’ or ‘and’; locative =baa meaning ‘at’; possessive =mɔ meaning ‘for’ or ‘belonging to’. Indirect objects like benefactives may be marked with postpositions. The distinction between ‘in’ and ‘on’ is made by both context and the choice of copula. More complex spatial relations are made by adding a postposition (typically =nɛ or =baa) after a body part word such as ónnu ‘back’ or gíré ‘face’, which is then used in a genitive construction with object of reference for location.
2. e. native and non-ideophonic) lexical item containing it is páán ‘dry up’. The following minimal or near-minimal pairs show that /aan/ contrasts with /ɛɛn/ and /ɔɔn/ in height and with /aa/ in nasality. 17 /ɛɛn/ The nasal vowel /ɛɛn/ contrasts in backness (and rounding) with /ɔɔn/, in height with /aan/, and in nasality with /ɛɛ/. 1 Syllable shape Tommo So syllables can be one of the following shapes: (C)V, (C)Vː, (C)VR (where R stands for a sonorant), (C)VC (where the coda is the ﬁrst half of a geminate), N, NCV, NCVː or CVV (with vowel hiatus).
6 for further discussion. The following minimal pairs show that continuancy, nasality, and rhoticity are contrastive for /r/. Since liquids cannot appear word-initially, /r/ is only contrastive in non-initial positions. 17 /l/ The phoneme /l/ is a lateral alveolar approximant with only this single allophone. The following minimal pairs show /l/ contrasting for rhoticity, continuancy, and nasality. Like /r/, it cannot appear in word-initial position, and hence all minimal pairs show /l/ word-medially.
A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura McPherson